The northern and central part of the South American continent was described as such in all the early chronicles and ethnohistoric accounts.Although the name Peru was used by foreigners to describe the indigenous Inca population, they called themselves the Tahuantinsuyu (meaning "the four-quarters" in Quechua).
The Andean mountains were the traditional home of the ancestral Inca kingdom.
Peru's tropical forest basin also is the source of three of the major tributaries of the Amazon River, the Ucayali, Huallaga, and Marañón Rivers.
Since the 1980s, there has been the growing of impact of the El Niño (the child) current.
Peru's capital, Lima, is located on the coast, about 8 miles (13 kilometers) from the Pacific Ocean.
Lima is home to almost a third of Peru's total population, with a total of two-thirds of the country's population living in the coastal region. The western coast contains dry, desertlike regions to the north as well as to the south, with more agriculturally productive lands along the major valleys formed by the western-draining Andean rivers.