They wrote that "forward experimental evolution can often be completely reversed with these populations". Mutations that result in a gain of novel information have not been observed.
"Despite decades of sustained selection in relatively small, sexually reproducing laboratory populations, selection did not lead to the fixation of newly arising unconditionally advantageous alleles." "The probability of fixation in wild populations should be even lower than its likelihood in these experiments." --Burke, Molly K., Joseph P. Most long-term evolution experiments thus far have been performed in bacteria or haploid yeast populations, where, in most environments, there exist a number of loss-of-function mutations that provide a selective advantage." "For instance, sterility in yeast provides a selective advantage by eliminating unnecessary gene expression." "The emergence of the Cit phenotype is the exception in experimental evolution, where most evolved mutations affect independent genes and biological pathways, driven largely by large-target loss-of-function mutations."This candid admission is from the evolutionist journal Nature: "Darwin anticipated that microevolution would be a process of continuous and gradual change.
But parts of living creatures are constructed of intricate components with connections that all need to be in place for the thing to work, controlled by many genes that have to act in the proper sequence.
Thus all the right mutations (and none of the destructive ones) must happen at the same time by pure chance. To illustrate just how hopeless it is, imagine this: on the ground are all the materials needed to build a house (nails, boards, shingles, windows, etc.).
To evolutionists, this idea has been essential for so long that it is called a "classic sweep", "in which a new, strongly beneficial mutation increases in frequency to fixation in the population."Some evolutionist researchers went looking for classic sweeps in humans, and reported their findings in the journal Science. Lenski is an evolutionary biologist who began a long-term experiment on February 24, 1988 that continues today.
"To evaluate the importance of classic sweeps in shaping human diversity, we analyzed resequencing data for 179 human genomes from four populations". You may have heard of the famous Lenski experiment. It looks for genetic changes in 12 initially identical populations of Escherichia coli bacteria that have been adapting to conditions in their flasks for over 60,000 generations.
There are more bacteria in the world than there are grains of sand on all of the beaches of the world (and many grains of sand are covered with bacteria).
Sweeps "were too infrequent within the past 250,000 years to have had discernible effects on genomic diversity." "Classic sweeps were not a dominant mode of human adaptation over the past 250,000 years." --Hernandez, Ryan D., Joanna L. Cord Melton, Adam Auton, Gilean Mc Vean, 1000 Genomes Project, Guy Sella, Molly Przeworski. Classic Selective Sweeps Were Rare in Recent Human Evolution. There were many mutations, but none caught on, and the experiment ran into the . The ability to use citrate in the presence of oxygen, trumpeted by evolutionists as a big deal, was the result of previously existing information being rearranged, not the origin of new information.
"In humans, the effects of sweeps are expected to persist for approximately 10,000 generations or about 250,000 years." Evolutionists had identified "more than 2000 genes as potential targets of positive selection in the human genome", and they expected that "diversity patterns in about 10% of the human genome have been affected by linkage to recent sweeps." So what did they find? to breed fruit flies that develop from egg to adult 20% faster than normal. I have simplified a report by Scott Whynot, who studied 26 peer-reviewed scientific articles authored by Dr. These papers represent the major genetic findings from 21 years of the experiment.7. coli in one of the twelve isolated populations began to utilize an energy source, citrate, that they normally could not use in the presence of oxygen. coli already have the ability to transport and metabolize citrate where there is no oxygen, but they do not produce an appropriate transport protein for an environment with oxygen. coli DNA, the gene for the citrate transporter that works without oxygen is directly upstream from genes for proteins with promoters that are active in the presence of oxygen.
"In contrast to expectation," their test detected nothing, but they could not quite bring themselves to say it. But, as usual when breeding plants and animals, there was a down side. Genome-wide analysis of a long-term evolution experiment with Drosophila. There was an insertion mutation in a gene that represses the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a molecule that participates in many metabolic reactions, some affecting longevity. A replication of the region happened to put the transporter gene next to one of these promoters, so it could now be expressed in the presence of oxygen.
Believing in beneficial mutations is like believing a short-circuit in the motherboard of your computer could improve its performance.
To make any lasting change, a beneficial mutation would have to spread ("sweep") through a population and stay (become "fixed").